I woke up on such a beautiful snowy Sunday just to realise that i have wasted so much time in my life. Approaching the age of 21 (i am old,u don’t hv to tell me that) in 2 weeks time, i still can’t get used to the relationship that equates ‘wasting time’ to ‘wasting my age’ i.e. membuang umur. I talk about the winning & victory of Islam, but at the same time i am one of the people of contribute to the delay of us achieving it (Sesaat anda melengahkan masa, bererti anda telah melengahkan kemenangan Islam), I agree that i am getting old, but at the same time i still cannot digest the fact that i am one second closer to death (Sedetik masa berlalu, selangkah menuju maut)..What am I thinking?
Talking about the victory of Islam i can’t help but writing about the caliphate system. As a subscriber of the weekly TIME magazine (which is good in keeping me updated about the world since i am soooo lazy to read online or even to watch the telly)i was given the access to its archive- any articles between 1923 till now. (those who would like to access the archive please contact me for the details..sharing is caring rite?)
And out of my curiousity on how does it feel to see the destruction of such an established system (of caliphate), i went on searching for articles by the keyword of ‘Islam’. It is amazing to see that from 1 Jan 1923 to 31 Jan 1926 only 25 articles that turn out on the list when there is no copy of TIME in my collection (from Nov 2005) that do not have at least two articles on Islam. See the different? Is it because the Islamophobia that they publish more articles just to add the negative impression about ISlam to the world or that we have became less strange that people has acknowledge us? (the latter is unacceptable anyway).
I don’t care about copyright, i just want to copy & paste those articles here for you guys to read.
May 24, 1926
From South and West Africa, Morocco, Mesopotamia, Transjordania, Tripoli, Tunis, Syria, Libya, Java, India there came to Cairo last week grave and potent Mohammedans, who solemnly entered and squatted within the mosque of Islam’s most ancient university, El Azhar
The Grand Sheik of El Azhar called this assembly to order. It began to debate: 1) Who shall be recognized or elected Calif of Islam? 2) What shall be held to be the true and orthodox qualifications of the Calif? 3) If Islam is to have an elected Calif, who may be deemed at present eligible?
The wise and venerable representatives of Islam who debated these momentous issues were given pause by the following considerations: 1) In 1922 the Turkish Parliament abolished the Sultanate, deposed the Sultan-Calif Mohammed VI and conferred the Califate upon his cousin, Prince Abdul Mejid. Subsequently (1924) it abolished the Califate and banished from Turkey all members of the House of Osman, which had ruled as Sultan and Calif since 1517. Thereupon King Husein of the Hejaz was somewhat irregularly “elected” Calif by his adherents, but abdicated as King in favor of his son Ali, who was subsequently conquered and deposed by Sultan Ibn Saud of Nejd. 2) None of these three disgruntled Califs possesses all three of the traditional qualifications: descent from Mohammed; the status of an independent sovereign; possession of the Holy Cities of Mecca and Medina. 3) None of the at present outstanding Mohammedan potentates possesses all three qualifications. 4) Should one or more qualifications be waived, the following potentates might well precipitate innumerable struggles in an effort to obtain the Califate: King Fuad of Egypt, King Feisal of Irak, President Mustafa Kemal of Turkey, Shah Reza of Persia, the Aga Kahn of Bombay, the Sultan of Morocco, King Abdulla of Transjordania, Imam Yahya of Yemen, the Idrisi of Asir, Sultan Ibn Saud of Nejd and the Hejaz, Sheik Achmet of the Senussites and Abd-El-Krim. … 5) The Califate Congress which met last week has already been repudiated by Sultan Ibn Saud, who has summoned a rival Califate Congress to meet at Mecca, next month — presumably on the theory that he seized the Califate from the Kings of the Hejaz when he overthrew them last year.
Significance. In these circumstances it appeared unlikely that the deliberations at Cairo will have any immediate effect. The Calif or Khalifa is, of course, the “Successor” or “Representative” of Mohammed, and is theoretically the temporal and spiritual sovereign of all Mohammedans. Strictly orthodox Mohammedans contend that the Turkish Sultans were never “true califs,” charging that they were not actually descended from Mohammed. Since the Sultans of Turkey “assumed” (bought) the Califate in 1517, it may fairly be said to be “extinct” or “lost,” at present, if their claims were invalid.
Possibilities. The extreme nebulosity of the Califate, in a legal sense, does not prevent thousands of ignorant Mohammedan peasants from manifesting a desire to fight in the name of the Prophet under the banner of almost anyone who is judiciously proclaimed and trumpeted as Calif.
The danger that a well propagandized new Calif would become the focus of troublesome “holy wars” might well cause the following Great Powers to “take steps”: Great Britain, if the “Green Mantle of the Prophet” should descend upon King Fuad of Egypt, King Feisal of Irak or the Aga Kahn; Italy, if Sheik Achmet of the Senussites should receive the “Sacred Sword” and begin swishing it near Italian Tripoli; France, if the “Holy Standard” (the third emblem of the Calif) should be unfurled in the Riff by Abd-El-Krim, or by one of the Sultans in the vicinity of Syria.
Host. Tranquil, intellectual Ahmed Fuad, Sultan of Egypt, Knight Grand Cross of the Bath, extended formal hospitality to the Califate Congress, but entertained no credulous hopes that he is likely to become temporal and spiritual overlord of Islam should the Conference indorse his claims. Though the British “protectorate” over Egypt terminated in 1922, Britain will tolerate no uprisings in Egypt which might threaten the Suez Canal —”the route to India.”
Ahmad Fuad therefore bestirred himself little during the week. Upon his knee he caressed now and then the Princesses Fawzieh and Faiza, aged five and three, his daughters.
Mohammed VI. At San Remo, Italy, the deposed Sultan Mohammed VI kept in close touch with the doings of the Cairo conference. When he ascended the Turkish throne (1918) his subjects numbered 12 millions. His realm embraced both Turkey in Europe and Turkey in Asia — nearly half a million square miles, including Anatolia, Arabia, Palestine, Mesopotamia and Kurdistan. The Turkish Republic now holds in Europe only the zone of Constantinople, and in Asia little more than Anatolia and Kurdistan.
As the deposed Sultan pondered these matters at San Remo last week, a long-standing illness of the heart stole upon him and he died.
Of the 270,000,000 Moslems in the world, perhaps 50 millions mourned him as the “True Calif.”
Mar. 17, 1924
The Mahammadans of India have voiced bitter resentment against the action of Mustafa Kemal, Turkish President, in virtually abolishing the Califate (see Page 11).
Mahammad Ali, Indian leader, said last week that the Califate is the essence of Islam and will not be abandoned by Indians.
Mahatma Gandhi has often expressed the opinion that the future of Islam is in India. Mahammadans have always been the most fanatical opponents of the British raj. If they attempt to create an Indian Califate, anarchy is almost sure to follow.
WANTED: A CALIF
May 31, 1926
The potent representatives of Islam who assembled at Cairo (TIME, May 24) to select a new Calif, disbanded last week after irreconcilable rivalries had kept the Califate Congress in an uproar almost from its inception.
The Conference’s most notable act was to adopt a resolution stressing the fact that when a new Calif should be appointed he must be a free sovereign capable of defending Islam. Since the two other traditional qualifications for a Calif—descent from Mohammed and possession of the Holy Cities of Mecca and Medina—were not mentioned, it was inferred that these latter qualifications may be explicitly waived at a later date.
A further resolution significantly recorded the opinion that “a Calif can attain that office by conquest, providing always that he be a Moslem.” More succinctly, Islam will rally to any Moslem who arises, smites the faithful and their enemies into submission, and proclaims himself Calif—the temporal and spiritual overlord of Islam.
The so-called “last true Calif,” the deposed Sultan of Turkey, Mohammed VI, died recently in Italy (TIME, May 24).
Mar. 17, 1924
At Angora, capital of Turkey, the Grand National Assembly passed a bill providing for the deposal of the Calif, Abdul Medjid Effendi, and the abolition of the Califate.
At Constantinople, Vali (Governor) Dr. Adran Bey, went to the Dolma Baghche Palace, home of the Calif. He there demanded to see the Calif in the Throne Room. When the Calif arrived, the Vali ordered him to ascend the throne, read the decision of the Grand National Assembly to him, ordered him to descend the throne and pack his things.
One hour later the deposed Calif, his wife, daughter, two members of his harem and his private secretary left the country for Switzerland
After examination of his papers, the Swiss Government gave him permission to stay in the country, provided he would promise to abstain from doing anything that would embarass Switzerland. The ex-Calif was expected to go on to France.
Aside from Turkey, the Moslem world finds itself in Africa, Arabia, Persia, Russia, Afghanistan, India, China. In fact 95% of the 220,000,000 Mahammadans in the world live outside of Turkey.
The Califate, which came into existence in 632 A. D. on the death of Mahammad, is the highest office of the Moslem religion. To some extent, although it cannot be compared to it, the Califate occupied the same position as the Vatican: The Calif (meaning successor, with to the Prophet understood) was the pontiff of Mahammadanism.
Last week the question of setting up a new Califate rapidly absorbed all the Moslem world. The King of Egypt, the Sultan of Morocco,* the Aga Khan of Bombay, all had their hopes of being recognized.
The most serious claimant to the Califate was King Hussein of the Hedjaz. The Arabs of Mesopotamia, Transjordania and the Hedjaz proclaimed King Hussein Calif, a title which the King was pleased to accept. For some time, the Arabs have been agitating to make Hussein Calif, thereby displaying their dislike for the conditions with which the Nationalist Turks surrounded the Califate. It was by no means certain that any of the other Moslem countries would recognize King Hussein as the head of Islam. He is, however, more fitted to the Califate than most other candidates, because the blood of Koreish, tribe to which Mahammad belonged, runs through his veins; this, according to the Sunni Moslems is an indispensable condition to be fulfilled by a Calif. Then, again, the holy cities of Mecca and Medina (the former associated with Mahammad’s birth, the latter with his death) are both within the territory of Hedjaz.
Said The Times, London, apropos of the Calif’s ouster: “Of all vast changes wrought by the war, the downfall of Habsburgs, Romanoffs and Hohenzollerns, the resurrection of ancient States and the rise of States unknown before, the evolution of novel forms of government and the emergence of new ideas and new feeling among mankind, no single change is more striking to the imagination than is this; and few, perhaps, may prove so important in their ultimate results.”
After deposing Sultan Mahammad VI in 1922, the Angora Government elected Abdul Medjid Effendi to the Califate. Now it has deposed him. The meaning of this sudden change of countenance was said to be that the Calif proved himself not pliable enough to the Government; he, therefore, had to go.
One of the surest results of abolishing the Califate in Turkey—and it seems clear that 5% of the Mahammadans could not abolish it for Islam— is that it is certain to reduce Turkey’s hitherto predominant position in Islam. If the Islamic world splits, Turkey may not suffer much, owing to her military strength; if it be unified under King Hussein, then Turkey’s position in the eyes of other Moslems will indeed be low.
But Turkey just now is turning her head to the West and forgetting the East; in whick case, loss of prestige in Islam may not mean so much to her.
*The Moroccans have never recognized the Calif at Constantinople.
—>> Most of the articles referred Muslims as Mahammadans..which is sooo incorrect.
those who would like to access the archive please contact me for the login details.